Earthquake

As per the BIS seismic zoning map 98.8% area falls in Seismic Zone V & 1.2 % area under Seismic Zone IV of Kangra is liable to the severest design intensity of MSK IX. As per HVRA Report of TARU 39 Earthquakes are recorded till date and as per Distribution of House by Predominant Materials of Roof and Wall and Level of Damage Risk out of 503,503 total Buildings in Kangra 301773 buildings are found to be made out of Unburnt Brick / mud walls leading to Very High risk of Damage. And the Building typology including Dhajji Dewari in District Kangra are 1. Concrete roof and wall made of burnt brick & Stone/ Slate roof and wall made of mud/ unburnt brick

 

 Estimation of Loss in Earthquake as per Housing Report

SN

Item

Scenario if all the buildings arewithout earthquake resistance.

Physical                   Loss in INR*         

Damage                      (million)            

Scenario of all buildings are with earthquake resistance.

Physical           Loss in INR*            

Damage                 (million)           

1.

Loss of lives

65,000

6,500

12,000

1,200

2.

Total collapses of buildings (G5)

1,36,339

9,540

8,298

580

3.

Destroyed buildings (G4)

2+3 Buildings to rebuild

2,63,356

3,99,695

18,430

27,970

94,997

1,03,295

6,650

7,230

4.

Heavily damaged buildings (G3; to repair and retrofit)

9,15,602

12,820

3,12,382

4,370

5.

Moderately damaged

buildings (G2; to repair and retrofit)

3,57,510

3,750

6,48,040

6,800

 

Total Loss

 

51,040

 

19,600

Source: Arya As, 12thWorld Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Aukland, 31stJanuary-4thFebruary, paper No.2824.

*INR-Indian rupees, 1US$INR 40.0 in 1997; G5, G4, G3, G2 are grades of damage defined in MSK Intensity scale.Loses estimated in 1997 at 1997 costs.

The damage and loss scenario could be more disastrous now as the population of the State and district Kangra and built-up environment has increased many times since 1991. Present estimate of devastation in a repeat hypothetical earthquake is that (a) loss of more than 340,000 lives will occur if the earthquake will happen at midnight of winter months and half of this number if it will occur in the morning when people are awake and sleeping, (b) the urban facilities particularly hospitals, schools, communication buildings, transportation routes in the hilly region and water supply facilities will be badly damaged. The fragility of the present situation was amply demonstrated by the rather small earthquake of M=5.7 occurring on April 26, 1986 causing economic loss of about Rs. 66.00 crore.